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The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchies of Portugal and Spain. Following the Portuguese crisis of succession, a dynastic union joined both crowns, along with their respective colonial possessions, under the control of the Spanish monarchy. The term Iberian union is a creation of modern historians. Source : [link]
The Republic was at the time fighting the Habsburgs for their independence and the reason why the Dutch sought to control the spice trade was one of economic survival. Prior to the union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns (respective territories depicted), Portuguese merchants used the Low Countries as a base for the sale of their spices in northern Europe. After the Spaniards wrested control over the Portuguese Empire though, they declared an embargo on all trade with the rebellious provinces (see: Union of Utrecht).
This meant the trade would now be directed through the southern low countries (roughly present-day Belgium), which according to the Union of Arras or (Union of Atrecht) were pledged to the Spanish monarch and were Roman Catholic, as opposed to the Dutch Protestant north. This also meant that the Dutch had lost their most profitable trade partner and their most important source of financing the war against Spain. Additionally they would lose their distribution monopoly with France, the Holy Roman Empire and northern Europe. Their North Sea fishing and Baltic cereal trading activities would simply not suffice to maintain the republic. Source : [link]
The sack of Antwerp during the Eighty Years' War is known as the Spanish Fury.
On 4 November 1576, Spanish tercios began the sack of Antwerp, leading to three days of horror among the population of the city, which was the cultural, economic and financial center of the Netherlands. The principal cause of the sack was the delay in payment due the soldiers by Philip II. Spain had recently declared bankruptcy, and 400,000 florins intended as payment to the troops were seized by the government of Elizabeth I when ships containing the florins sought shelter from a storm in English ports.
The Spanish soldiers, angry at fighting without rest or pay against the Dutch rebels, had already sacked Zierikzee and Aalst, causing the fifteen loyal provinces (Holland and Zeeland were in the hands of the rebels) to come together in States-General with the purpose of removing the mercenaries from the Netherlands. With no payment in sight, the Spanish soldiers decided to pay themselves by looting Antwerp. Some 7,000 lives and a great deal of property were lost. The cruelty and destruction of these three days of rage became known as the Spanish Fury. Source : [link]
England aph, Spain aph, Egypt aph & Netherlands aph belonged to Himaruya H.
Spice Islands is Maluku Islands in Indonesia.
Indonesia aph, Malaysia aph & Portugal aph based on Himaruya's sketch. ([link]
Timor Leste OC by
Phillippines OC by
Brunei Darussalam OC by
Scotland aph & Luxembourg aph from Hetawiki : [link]