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maaf 513 by dinosaurusgede maaf 513 by dinosaurusgede
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*the joke inspired by the novel "Eat, Pray, Love" by Elizabeth Gilbert.

In an important but neglected essay, M. N. Pearson argues that Europeans were unusual not in their capacities as colonizers but in their very desire to colonize: Asian states tended to focus on overland expansion rather than overseas expansion, leaving the oceans open to Europeans. His nuanced argument can be distilled to one basic hypothesis: States that gain the great majority of their revenue from agriculture act differently from states that rely upon trade for a significant portion of their revenues. According to Pearson, during the early modern period most large Asian states belonged to the first category (that is, they derived most of their revenue from agriculture) and therefore tended to be indifferent to oceangoing trade. By contrast, the colonizing Western European states belonged to the second category and therefore tended to focus on oceangoing trade.6

Pearson supports his hypothesis with cases drawn primarily from his area of expertise: Indian history. When the Portuguese arrived in the Indian Ocean in the late fifteenth century, they found it remarkably easy to impose their control over the most valuable maritime trade routes. According to Pearson, this was because Indian states, being bound to agricultural rather than commercial revenues, tended to ignore the prospects for revenue from oceangoing trade. Gujarat was the most sea-oriented of these states, and its merchants dominated routes throughout the Indian Ocean region, from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Melaka. Even so, one of Gujarat's kings felt that "wars by sea are merchants' affairs and of no concern to the prestige of kings."7 Its government gained only 6 percent of its income from maritime trade, and it was therefore not in the business of maritime adventurism.8 Later in the sixteenth century, the Mughals established their rule over India, founding a state an order of magnitude richer and more populous than the largest Western European states. They certainly could have challenged the Portuguese and their successors, but the Mughals, too, were focused on agricultural production as the basis of their tax revenues, and so they made little effort to subject the Indian Ocean region to their rule. Adages expressed by the elite of the Mughal era indicate this anti-oceanic perspective: "Merchants who travel by sea are like silly worms clinging to logs."9 And so, when the Portuguese arrived in the Indian Ocean, they found the seas open to naval power. The Asian traders of the Indian Ocean were accustomed to peaceful trade, and it appears that, in the century preceding the arrival of the Portuguese, no Asian state had tried to establish hegemony over the seas. The Portuguese, then, benefiting from strong state support as well as the absence of serious competition, were able to establish control over large sectors of the Indian Ocean trade.

To be sure, Portuguese incursions provoked reactions. Early in the sixteenth century, Gujarat and Egypt formed an alliance to reclaim sea routes from the Portuguese. They constructed an armed fleet, which was defeated by the Portuguese in a battle at Diu in 1509. This battle shows the importance of Portuguese naval technologies and strategies, but it is also telling that the arrival of the Portuguese provoked so few such naval reactions. The Ottomans made a half-hearted and desultory attempt to drive the Portuguese out of the Indian Ocean, but they too were more concerned with affairs on land.10 And in the seventeenth century, the Omanis succeeded in driving the Portuguese from Muscat and other coastal enclaves.11 The Omanis' success demonstrates how easy it might have been for a major Asian power to remove the Portuguese altogether. The surprising thing is that, as Pearson points out, no major Asian state seriously tried. According to Pearson's statist hypothesis, the Portuguese were able to convert a naval advantage into oceanic hegemony because they had the strong support of their state whereas Asian states were relatively uninterested in overseas mercantile expansion. The same was true of the Dutch, who arrived a century after the Portuguese.

Pearson's hypothesis appears reasonable: Asian states do appear to have been less likely than European states to foster overseas aggression for commercial purposes, leaving Asian seas open to European control. Thus, Europeans were simply able to exploit a maritime power vacuum. But many questions remain. For example, there were plenty of Asian states that did emphasize overseas trade. Perhaps the most important are the maritime states of Southeast Asia, such as Macassar and Aceh. These were quite dependent upon revenues from overseas trade and were also at times effective in challenging Portuguese and Dutch expansion. Yet they did not engage in overseas colonialism like the western European states, so there must be other factors at play. We must study these states, and the others throughout the world that might serve as counter examples. Source :[link]

Hetalia, England aph, Spain aph, Egypt aph, Italy aph, Macau aph & Netherlands aph belonged to Himaruya H.
Spice Islands is Maluku Islands in Indonesia.
Indonesia aph, Malaysia aph & Portugal aph based on Himaruya's sketch. ([link])
India OC & Mughal OC design by dinosaurusgede
Philippines OC design by :iconlonewolfjc11:
Brunei Darussalam OC design by :iconanvilgurl:
Japan 17th century design by :icontbyty:
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:iconcutekitty15:
CuteKitty15 Featured By Owner Aug 23, 2013
wait.........Elizabeth Gilbert........PruHun anyone?
Reply
:iconrandomyami:
RandomYami Featured By Owner Nov 9, 2013
Yes. :iconmahfeelzplz:
Reply
:iconkenslev:
Kenslev Featured By Owner Aug 13, 2013
Lesson learned: NEVER go to Netherlands for a pep talk.
Reply
:iconsenameru:
senameru Featured By Owner Apr 11, 2012  Hobbyist Artist
omg! indeed!! & he just have to say that w/ such a look on his face. lol. he's like, slapping that obvious fact in her face.=__= the heck Netherlands?
Reply
:iconcatsummoner:
CatSummoner Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
wakakakaka XD
omongan Oom Nederland ga pernah pake konotasi ato perumpamaan ato penghalusan sama sekali ya
Reply
:iconevilgingerbirdie7:
EvilGingerBirdie7 Featured By Owner Mar 24, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
In the first panel I see India, Mughal, but who is the other person in the background?
Reply
:iconeuphemiaelseayue:
EuphemiaElseaYue Featured By Owner Oct 15, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
It's Bangladesh! Right...???
Reply
:iconevilgingerbirdie7:
EvilGingerBirdie7 Featured By Owner Oct 15, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
It could be. It would definitely make sense if it was Bangladesh.
Reply
:iconed63:
ed63 Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012
Bang Nether...realistic n analytical as always -__-"
Reply
:iconhananoyuuki:
hananoyuuki Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Netherland and his blunt way of speaking XDDD
To Asian,thats probably rude LOLOLOL
Reply
:iconlemonsnapples:
lemonsnapples Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012
Ffffuuuuu googling M. N. Pearson doesn't come up with anything! GOOGLE DON'T FAIL ME

That was a very convincing argument Mr. Pearson laid out. OvO That "How Taiwan Became Chinese" website looks very nice. It sounds like all the Asian nations except the Southeastern ones were fairly economically independent, relying on their own soil (or the soil of neighboring countries who were conquered) to produce their goods.

. . . Does that mean that almost all Asians are like Japan, shutting themselves up in their own house and not trading much with others?! That's not necessarily a bad thing, I guess, but it made them vulnerable to European powers, eh?
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:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
But this situation is very favorable for Indonesian and Malaysian. They're the merchants who distributed goods from nation to nation since they lies between China and India. The bad thing is, they're too used to peaceful trade and when the European comes with canons and warship...you know the rest ^^"
Reply
:iconlemonsnapples:
lemonsnapples Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012
You guys made some good money out of China & India (er . . . Mughal?)'s reluctance to trade on the sea, eh? XD

It's unfortunate how it's military power that ultimately seems to matter, from a historical perspective. ;_;
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:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Yes, we love China and India as our customers XDDD
yes military power really matters. Unlike India and China, we dont have imidiate access to firearms and canons. Thus colonization began early in this part of the world... ;_; it's too bad....
Reply
:iconlemonsnapples:
lemonsnapples Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012
Did I say that "How Taiwan Became Chinese" website? I meant Columbia University's Gutenberg-e website that hosts academic papers and primary sources! I love the current trend in academia towards open-publishing. That's what you get, publishers, for not paying your authors and actually making authors pay to read their own paper!
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
yes, online open-publishing is great news ;v; especially if you live in an island far away from decent library.
Reply
:iconbrisingr-arget:
Brisingr-Arget Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Well, that's one way to put it bluntly.
Reply
:iconpr0j3ct5akur4:
Pr0j3CT5AkuR4 Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Student General Artist
Way to point out the obvious, Netherlands >|||>;;;;
Ah, well least she's getting an ally... i think ;;;;
Reply
:iconspeedingturtle312:
SpeedingTurtle312 Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012
Heh heh heh, I recognize the "Are you a transcript of my most evil thoughts?" from a scene in one of the last few chapters of Eat, Pray, Love. Made me grin, since you've used it as a reference before.
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
correct! ^^ Ahhh, just love that movie >v<
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:iconbirvan:
Birvan Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
That's a very interesting essay
I can vouch on Portugal putting a really big effort in maritime exploration. There were a lot of people trying to convince the kings to stop investing on exploring the unknown (which at the time had no guarantees of success and it was quite a risky venture) and get them to focus their attention on more "traditional" methods (aka seizing land)
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Yep, we know Portugal love for ocean and his habit of seizing ocean territory......which collided with Indonesian interest XDD

Seriously, before the arrival of Portuguese, nobody owns the Indian Ocean, the sea itself become the neutral territory for any nation to cross for thousands of years. This is very beneficial for Indonesian merchants which lies between India and China. However, when Portugal came and claimed the Indian Ocean for himself (with the backing of lots of canons and guns), many of the trade was distrupted. Asian merchants despise Portugal patrol ships since they often sink their merchant ships unless they get a cartaz. However, to obtain the cartaz, they have to go to Portuguese Goa first where they may or may not be captured by the patrolling Inquisitors. The inquisitors have a hobby of catching bypassing merchants, confiscating their money and smear cow-meat in people's lips if they're Hindus, thus making them "untouchable". The Mughal sultans and China emperors doesnt really help Asian merchants either, since they think its none of their bussiness. ^^;
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:iconbirvan:
Birvan Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
If he couldn't get any on land he had to settle for the best next thing ^^;
Though knowing part of his fishing and travelling grounds collided with hostile arab and spanish waters, i's only natural for him to draw lines to determine safe zones

Urg, don't remind me. The people they sent and the Inquisition is something that still makes me ashamed DX
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:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Sorry ^^; ah well, it was history anyway. But looking back at those time, the Mediterania waters are very dangerous, with lots of pirates cough*ottomancorsairs*cough and Spain. No wonder, Portugal ships are very strong, fast and loads with canons. It was a shock then when Portugal went to Asia XDDD
Reply
:iconbirvan:
Birvan Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
The Atlantic ones weren't much better. No ships tailored to sail the Mediterranean were able to survive for very long in the wild ocean currents
That's why Port had an extra edge. His extensive coastline is filled with beaches, sharp cliffs and treacherous currents. It was the perfect training grounds >3
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
no wonder ^^
Reply
:iconmalaysianotaku:
MalaysianOtaku Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Student Digital Artist
Modo is just staring there, doing practically nothing. MAKE HIM A SAKA LAH!
Nah, Malaya still received protection from Siam because apparently, Siamese loves golden flowers.
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
A SAKA? OAO ......how?? :3 ?? no, seriously, I don't know anything about this ritual ^^;

Siam loves golden flower? oooh, you mean that "Curse of The Golden Flower" movie? ^^
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:iconmeirenka:
meirenka Featured By Owner Mar 25, 2012  Student General Artist
Nope, MalaysianOtaku meant sculpture of flowers made with real gold. Siam really loves them to the point of threatening Malaya to send it to him annualy.
Reply
:iconkaigaazuko:
Kaigaazuko Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012
I read something about saka rirual. Ni ada dukun Islam ni yah pergi ke hutan buat apa aku tak ingat tapi berhenti di sebuah busut(rumah semut) besar untuk santai.
Suddenly ada jin harimau besar datang duduk di pangkuannya. Sang dukun terkejut takut. Sepertinya ni 'harimau' mau beri perkhidmatan percuma sebab dia datang sendiri. Tapi sang dukun tidak ingin maka jin harimau akan pergi. Tapi kalau mau yang ngga fee itu.....seru saja guna sesajian dan buat perjanjian darah atau semacamnya menggunakan bayaran apa yang di hendaki sakanya.(don not try at home or anywhere)
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Oooooh, that's very interesting ^^
Reply
:iconkaigaazuko:
Kaigaazuko Featured By Owner Mar 23, 2012
Very~ ^o^Bali bukannya banyak sakanya juga.
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 24, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
....yes, but I can't see them ^^" haha.
I live in Parahyangan by the way ^^
Reply
:iconmalaysianotaku:
MalaysianOtaku Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Student Digital Artist
Mix the desired thing's soul with your soul. Optional:Tame it with the Siamese They happily ever after. The end.

Nope, golden flowers. He loves silver flowers too [link]
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Aaaaaawww, that's so sweet >v<
Singapore got a rival
Reply
:iconootoetjeoo:
oOToetjeOo Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist
h-he looks scary TwT ... but it's actually the truth...
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
lol XDDDDD
Reply
:iconootoetjeoo:
oOToetjeOo Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist
i also really like your use of shadows in one's face hwen they're serious XD it makes them more serious :iconimseriousplz:
Reply
:icongalatea-dnegro:
Galatea-DNegro Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Gosh, so hard words ;o;
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I'm sorry.... ;__;
Reply
:icongalatea-dnegro:
Galatea-DNegro Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
It's ok! they're wonderful for le drama! :D
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