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"Corporation, noun: An ingenious device for obtaining individual profit without individual responsibility. "
— Ambrose Bierce

Michael A.Lechter. (2005) OPM : Other People's Money. How to attract Other People's Money for your investment-the ultimate leverage. Warner Bussiness Books : New York.

=> VOC (Dutch East India Company)

The Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC, "United East India Company") was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It is often considered to have been the first multinational corporation in the world [2] and it was the first company to issue stock.[3] It was also arguably the first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts,[4] negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies.[5]

=> VOC Formation

At the time, it was customary for a company to be set up only for the duration of a single voyage, and to be liquidated upon the return of the fleet. Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply[14] of spices could make prices tumble at just the wrong moment, thereby ruining prospects of profitability. To manage such risk the forming of a cartel to control supply would seem logical. The English had been the first to adopt this approach, by bundling their resources into a monopoly enterprise, the English East India Company in 1600, thereby threatening their Dutch competitors with ruin.[15]

=> VOC Shareholders

The VOC had two types of shareholders: the participanten, who could be seen as non-managing partners, and the 76 bewindhebbers (later reduced to 60) who acted as managing partners. This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies at the time. The innovation in the case of the VOC was, that the liability of not just the participanten, but also of the bewindhebbers was limited to the paid-in capital (usually, bewindhebbers had unlimited liability). The VOC therefore was a limited-liability company. Also, the capital would be permanent during the lifetime of the company. As a consequence, investors that wished to liquidate their interest in the interim could only do this by selling their share to others on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.[44]
The VOC consisted of six Chambers (Kamers) in port cities: Amsterdam, Delft, Rotterdam, Enkhuizen, Middelburg and Hoorn. Delegates of these chambers convened as the Heeren XVII (the Lords Seventeen). They were selected from the bewindhebber-class of shareholders.[45]
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Hetalia, England aph, Spain aph, Egypt aph, Italy aph, Macau aph & Netherlands aph belonged to Himaruya H.
Spice Islands is Maluku Islands in Indonesia.
Indonesia aph, Malaysia aph & Portugal aph based on Himaruya's sketch. ([link])
India OC & Mughal OC design by dinosaurusgede
Philippines OC design by :iconlonewolfjc11:
Brunei Darussalam OC design by :iconanvilgurl:
Japan 17th century design by :icontbyty:
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annah-the-compozer Featured By Owner Dec 9, 2014  Hobbyist
Piggy Bank= The Preciousssss
thepagansun Featured By Owner Jan 19, 2013
Poor Spain...XD
MedusaLegend Featured By Owner Oct 7, 2012
piggy bank return
senameru Featured By Owner Jun 6, 2012  Hobbyist Artist
i dont understand his explanation... so you mean.. borrowing their money then paying it back to them? if the whole thing fails you end up being in debt. so why not use your own money then?? when you are in debt you pay them w/ your money. so in the end you still lose it.(oДo) plus the interest, if there is. so it'll be a bigger loss than using your own money. i getting this right??
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Jun 6, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
oh no, no, what Netherlands means is that the investor invest their money in Netherlands' corporation(VOC) in return for ownership of the company. If the company failed /were bankcrupt or their employee demanded insurance compensation, the investor loss are only limited to the money they invest in the company, not including their personal assets as well.
Or if Netherlands doesnt want to lose ownership of his company, he can borrow money as well. If the company fails to pay back its debt, then the company assets has to be sold and the money are to be paid to the creditor. Netherlands himself doesnt have to pay any single dime, because his personal assets are protected through the limited liability company (VOC).
senameru Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2012  Hobbyist Artist
my nose is bleedin'!!
but i get it. kind of. had to read it slowly. lol.
to think that i had studied accounting & business once... i dunno if this stuff was ever mentioned. no wonder i failed that subject. :iconotlplz:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
dont worry about that ^^ you are very brilliant to understand this in one explanation. You have talent for finance! ^^
this stuff is studied in finance mayor 2nd year in my university, ^^
senameru Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2012  Hobbyist Artist
& thanks. hahaha. XD does that mean you're taking Finance??
senameru Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2012  Hobbyist Artist
hahaha~ well for finance, they did say im good at the budgeting thing, im not sure, but i guess so? i do have to make budgets every time i get a hold of money. is poor here... :icontearfulplz: ehehehe...

oh yeah, university means college right?? we dont have middle school here. &, oh gosh!, i do want to go through one.( o Д o ) ...just for the uniforms & all that fun youthness thing.XD even though i want to get out of school quickly. lol.XD
Hinodahime Featured By Owner May 27, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Netherlands: using Other People's Money since the foundation of the VOC.
Of course Netherlands would use Other People's Money. He would consider the use of his own as slaughter of the worst kind (to the piggybank). Which begs the question: Who is more stingy? The Dutch or the Swiss?
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